Hiking in winter offers additional opportunities, challenges and hazards. Crampons may be needed in icy conditions, and an ice ax is recommended on steep, snow covered paths. Snowshoes and hiking poles, or cross country skis are useful aid for those hiking in deep snow. An example of a close relationship between skiing and hiking is found in Norway, where The Norwegian Trekking Association over 400 huts stretching across thousands of kilometres of trails which hikers can use in the summer and skiers in the winter. For longer routes in snowy conditions, hikers may resort to ski touring, using specialised skis and boots for uphill travel. In winter, factors such as shortened daylight, changeable weather conditions and avalanche risk can raise the hazard level of hiking.
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