The carpenters in Ming China, and particularly the first century of Ming China, experienced the division of labor process. Ruitenbeek emphasizes that the carpenters were divided into two categories, the “resident artisans” and the “shift artisans.”  The resident artisans, according to Ruitenbeek, lived in the capital of Ming China (first Nanjing, then Beijing) because of the forced immigration launched by Ming Taizu. They were required to do ten days for each month in the imperial palace. According to the difference of their household register, these resident artisans were further categorized as military carpenters and civil carpenters. The military carpenters of to the division of defense, and were required to produce useful items for the military, such as bows and cannon supports. The civil carpenters to the Board of Work. The shift artisans, on the other hand, did not need to reside in capital regions, but they were required to complete service on behalf of the Board of Work. , Carpenters in Ming WLifeng China also avoided intrinsic competitions by establishing guilds. Guilds were long-lasting in premodern China, and by the late Ming times, it developed into institutions with complete regulations seeking to minimize intrinsic competitions. Ruitenbeek provides a framework for the guilds of carpentry in Ming times: There was a system of apprentice, journeyman and master. Welfare was an important task of the guilds; it ensured, for example, a decent burial for its poorer members.
See more at: You don’t stop carpentry when you get old poster